Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There isn’t much evidence and we’re left with only some solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don’t know exactly how much the influence of each factor is.
It is known that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and افضل شامبو وبلسم (similar internet site) relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line – it means that in all nations baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1
It is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.
The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let’s examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially in the past century.
You can confirm that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the «Change country» option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.